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C语言中的指针和数组之间有什么区别?

本文概述

指针用于存储动态分配的数组的地址, 以及用于作为参数传递给函数的数组。在其他情况下, 数组和指针是两个不同的东西, 请参见以下程序以证明此语句的合理性。

sizeof运算符的行为

C

//1st program to show that array and pointers are different
#include <stdio.h>
 
int main()
{
     int arr[] = { 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 };
     int * ptr = arr;
 
     //sizof(int) * (number of element in arr[]) is printed
     printf ( "Size of arr[] %ld\n" , sizeof (arr));
 
     //sizeof a pointer is printed which is same for all
     //type of pointers (char *, void *, etc)
     printf ( "Size of ptr %ld" , sizeof (ptr));
     return 0;
}

C++

//1st program to show that array and pointers are different
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
 
int main()
{
     int arr[] = { 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 };
     int * ptr = arr;
 
     //sizof(int) * (number of element in arr[]) is printed
     cout <<"Size of arr[] " <<sizeof (arr) <<"\n" ;
 
     //sizeof a pointer is printed which is same for all
     //type of pointers (char *, void *, etc)
     cout <<"Size of ptr " <<sizeof (ptr);
     return 0;
}

输出如下

Size of arr[] 24
Size of ptr 8

不允许将任何地址分配给数组变量。

C

//IInd program to show that array and pointers are different
#include <stdio.h>
 
int main()
{
    int arr[] = {10, 20}, x = 10;
    int *ptr = &x; //This is fine
    arr = &x;  //Compiler Error
    return 0;
}

输出如下:

Compiler Error: incompatible types when assigning to 
              type 'int[2]' from type 'int *'

尽管数组和指针是不同的东西, 但是数组的以下属性使它们看起来相似。

  1. 数组名称给出数组第一个元素的地址。 

例如, 考虑以下程序。

C

#include <stdio.h>
int main()
{
     int arr[] = { 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 };
     //Assigns address of array to ptr
     int * ptr = arr;
     printf ( "Value of first element is %d" , *ptr);
     return 0;
}

C++

//1st program to show that array and pointers are different
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main()
{
     int arr[] = { 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 };
 
     //Assigns address of array to ptr
     int * ptr = arr;
     cout <<"Value of first element is " <<*ptr;
     return 0;
}

输出如下

Value of first element is 10

使用指针算法访问数组成员。

编译器使用指针算法访问数组元素。例如, 像” arr [i]”之类的表达式被编译器视为*(arr + i)。这就是为什么像*(arr + i)这样的表达式适用于数组arr, 而像ptr [i]这样的表达式也适用于指针ptr的原因。

C

#include <stdio.h>
 
int main()
{
    int arr[] = {10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60};
    int *ptr = arr;
    printf ( "arr[2] = %d\n" , arr[2]);
    printf ( "*(arr + 2) = %d\n" , *(arr + 2));
    printf ( "ptr[2] = %d\n" , ptr[2]);
    printf ( "*(ptr + 2) = %d\n" , *(ptr + 2));
    return 0;
}

C++

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
 
int main()
{
     int arr[] = { 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 };
     int * ptr = arr;
     cout <<"arr[2] = " <<arr[2] <<"\n" ;
     cout <<"*(arr + 2) = " <<*(arr + 2) <<"\n" ;
     cout <<"ptr[2] = " <<ptr[2] <<"\n" ;
     cout <<"*(ptr + 2) = " <<*(ptr + 2) <<"\n" ;
     return 0;
}

输出如下

arr[2] = 30
*(arr + 2) = 30
ptr[2] = 30
*(ptr + 2) = 30

数组参数始终作为指针传递, 即使我们使用方括号也是如此。

C

#include <stdio.h>
 
int fun( int ptr[])
{
     int x = 10;
 
     //size of a pointer is printed
     printf ( "sizeof(ptr) = %d\n" , ( int ) sizeof (*ptr));
 
     //This allowed because ptr is a pointer, not array
     ptr = &x;
 
     printf ( "*ptr = %d " , *ptr);
 
     return 0;
}
 
//Driver code
int main()
{
     int arr[] = { 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 };
     
     //size of a array is printed
     printf ( "sizeof(arr) = %d\n" , ( int ) sizeof (arr));
     fun(arr);
     return 0;
}

输出如下

sizeof(arr) = 24
sizeof(ptr) = 4
*ptr = 10

请参考C语言中的指针与数组

如果发现任何不正确的地方, 或者想分享有关上述主题的更多信息, 请发表评论。

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